Thursday, December 27, 2018

Post Holiday bulb care

by Irene Shonle, revisiting an old favorite
The holidays are winding down and many of us now have pots of withering Amaryllis and paperwhites.  While it’s harder than I consider worth it to get paperwhites to re-bloom again in our climate (they are not hardy for planting outdoors), don't throw out your Amaryllis.  With a little care, it can bloom again next year - even better than it did this year!

Spent Amaryllis & Paperwhites
 The secret is to keep the plant actively growing after it blooms to recharge the bulb; it takes a lot of energy to produce such big flowers. If the bulb does not produce a flowering stalk the next blooming period, it is likely that has not stored enough nutrients during the post-blooming period.

After the flowers have faded, cut the flowers off to prevent seed set. Only cut the flowering stalk after it turns yellow, a green stalk continues to produce energy for the bulb.  In order to feed the bulb for next year's show, water and feed the plant regularly with an all-purpose houseplant fertilizer. Put the plant in the sunniest possible location for the rest of the winter to encourage strong leaf development. I have found that putting the pot outside during the summer after all danger of frost helps maximize photosynthesis and gives the best results. Make sure to slowly acclimate the plant to full sun to avoid sunburn (gradually increase the time spent in the sun each day for about a week).  I have also noticed that critters don't seem to bother either the leaves or the bulb - a bonus around here.  Remember to feed the plant a few times during the summer in addition to regularly watering.

Red Amaryllis
For blooms in time for the holidays, stop watering in mid-August and bring the pot inside. Let the foliage die back naturally as the soil dries out completely. When the leaves have withered, store the dormant bulb in a cool, dark and dry place for a minimum of eight to twelve weeks. Then, about six to eight weeks before you want the Amaryllis to flower again, place it in bright light and begin watering again - sparingly at first, so the bulb is not sitting in water.

If you don’t care when it blooms, there is no need to do the fall dormancy protocol. Continue watering and fertilizing the plant, and bring it inside before frost. Keep it in a sunny window, and it will usually bloom sometime in spring. The flowering stalk should emerge with or before the leaves if you have taken proper care of the plant. Watch as the number of flowers on the stalk increases in both number and size as the bulb increases in size.  Over time, the bulb may produce a new bulb, which you can remove and pot up separately. Amaryllis plants bloom best when they are somewhat pot-bound (crowded roots). They require re-potting only every 3 or 4 years. The best time to re-pot them is after they have gone through a dormant period in the fall.
Paperwhites in Winter
Irene is the County Extension Director in Gilpin County

Monday, December 17, 2018

Poinsettias and plants that may, or may not be, poisonous

by Kurt M. Jones
While Poinsettia plants are not actually poisonous, I was recently asked about this.  As a concerned parent of two young children, I decided to do some research about poisonous plants, and learned that the toddler in my life is more harmful to my Poinsettia houseplant than the plant is to him.
Poinsettia, not poisonous

However, this is not true of all plants in our home and landscape.  Some plants that grow in our landscape or surrounding areas can be dangerous for our children and pets.  One website that I often visit when looking into poisonous plants is CSU's Guide to Poisonous Plants,  This is a searchable website written by Dr. Tony Knight, DVM from the CSU Veterinary School.  Dr. Knight is a world-recognized expert on plant toxins for animals, but he cross references many of his plants as affecting humans.

Upon visiting the site and searching for 'humans,' a list of 22 plants was returned.  This site has good color pictures of plants, animals affected, and geographic locations of these plants.  Of course, there are many plants we are not likely to plant in our landscapes (like leafy spurge, water hemlock, death camas, or buckeyes). Yet, there are some plants that may find their way into our landscapes or potted plants (like Oleander, Autumn crocus, Glory lily, Rhododendron, Delphinium and Daffodils) that are toxic.  Easter lilies are especially toxic to house cats.
Easter lily
I also visited the Cornell University website for toxic plants, and did a search for plants poisonous to humans.  About 55 plants were returned in this search (including several mushroom species).  Included in this list is the Poinsettia, which was surprising.  The Society of American Florists has given a 'Clean Bill of Health' to the Poinsettia plant. It is, however, wise to keep Poinsettias and other plants out of the reach of children and household pets that show a desire to chew or eat plants.  The white latex sap in the leaves and stems is mildly irritating to the mucous membranes of the mouth, and for some animals it will induce excessive salivation and vomiting if plant parts are swallowed. The wide variety of hybrid poinsettias available today have very little toxicity compared to the parent species.  Other Euphorbia’s, include the various spurges, have been shown to be hazardous to humans when handled or consumed.
Leafy spurge

I also researched the incidence of plant poisonings for this article and was surprised at some of the findings.  According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers, there were 64,236 (2.7 %) cases involving plants.  In pediatrics (age 5 or less), the percentage is higher (3.7%).  Of the plant calls received by poison control centers involved in this report, the Poinsettia was number 2 on the list.  For more information, visit their website at  Should you suspect poisoning, call 1-800-222-1222.  If it is an emergency, of course, dial 911.

So what should you do to prevent unwanted poisonings?  First, keep plants out of the reach of children.  Babies and toddlers like to stick new items into their mouths, and plants parts may be a choking hazard even if they are not poisonous.  Learn to identify problematic plants in and around your home.  Do some research on potential plant additions before bringing them home and endangering children or pets.  Should you have poisonous plants in your landscape or home, consider removing or take steps to insure they cannot harm (i.e. fencing off or elevating them in your home).
Kurt Jones is the CSU Chaffee County Extension Director

Monday, December 10, 2018

Great reference book for insects and diseases of woody plants

by Kristina Hughes
Gardening in the mountains is full of challenges, so I am always looking for reliable sources of horticultural information pertinent to our region and our specific issues (like this blog!). And it is especially important to have good information when trying to figure out what’s wrong with a struggling plant.

For the past two seasons I have been volunteering at the Jeffco Diagnostic Clinic where people bring us their sick plants for diagnosis. They also bring us insects they suspect might be doing evil in their landscapes, mysterious fungi that have appeared unbidden (often in mulch), and unfamiliar plants about whose identity clients are simply curious. We have to solve all kinds of garden and landscape problems.

We have an entire library of resource materials at the Clinic, including compendia of turf diseases and vegetable diseases, books large and small on almost every plant pathology subject. But I have found that there one which is my favorite. I don’t leave home without it (literally - I keep a copy in my car at all times). It’s easy to use and easy to understand. It’s geared specifically to problems in Colorado. I’ve been known to read it in my spare time because it’s so well organized and has such good pictures.....

It is ‘Insects and Diseases of Woody Plants in Colorado’ from CSU Extension, 2014 edition. It is a soft-cover, spiral-bound book of 322 pages and it cost $40 when I bought my copy several years ago.

It’s easier to use than any of the other books because in the back near the index there is a excellent key which directs the reader to the most likely culprits for any given plant.

Have you ever wondered why Ponderosa pines drop the tips of their branches periodically? If you looked in the back of this book, under ‘Pines’ there is a subsection for ‘Affecting trunk and larger branches’ and then a listing for ‘Chewing off twigs’ which directs you to read about Abert's squirrels on page 259. There you will find pictures of the types of damage squirrels can do to trees along with detailed information about which plants they damage, times of year damage is most likely to occur, life cycle of squirrels and recommendations for management. It is just enough detail for a layperson to be able to identify the problem and execute a solution confidently, without getting lost in overly technical jargon.

Spruce Gall Photo by Kristina
Have you seen this on a spruce? 

Or this on an aspen?
Poplar Twiggall Fly Photo by Utah State Extension

With this book, it’s easy to find out that the first one is Cooley Spruce Gall (page 140) and its mostly a cosmetic issue which usually doesn’t require intervention. The second one is caused by Poplar Twiggall Fly (page 141)which also doesn’t do much damage to the plant. 

This book addresses only problems of woody plants. But our woody plants are long-lived, important foundational elements in our landscapes and their loss can be devastating. This book contains a very broad range of information on insects, larger animal pests, bacteria, fungi, as well as non-living causes of disease, all organized in a highly accessible manner, which makes it easier for us to help our plants when they are struggling. I wish there were more books like this for other types of plants.

We have so many challenges in the mountains and having correct information allows us to be more effective when dealing with those challenges. I have found this book to be incredibly useful both in my personal gardening and in my various Master Gardener roles. It’s also just fun to read!

Kristina Hughes
Clear Creek County Master Gardener

Friday, November 30, 2018

The Landscaping with Colorado Native Plants Conference

By Irene Shonle, CSU Extension in Gilpin County
Native plants are some of the easiest plants to grow if you are a mountain gardener.  As I have been gardening up here for nearly twenty years, I have experimented with a lot of plants.  Some have done great, and some have died.  But, as I always say, “if you’re not killing plants, you’re not trying hard enough.”

Because I am a rather Darwinian gardener, I don’t coddle the plants in my garden. They have to make it despite drought, critters, winds, and long winters.  As a result, many of the non-native species have been weeded out.  Over the years, I have ended up with going from about 25% native to probably about 80% native.  And I couldn’t be happier.
If you are interested in native plants, please come to the 4th Annual Landscaping with Colorado Native Plants Conference on February 16th at the Auraria Campus in Denver.

The Landscaping with Colorado Native Plants Conference promotes the inclusion of native plants in our landscaping to benefit pollinators and songbirds, save water, and restore the beauty and health of nature in the places we live, work and play.

There are many delightful topics to pique your interest, including a keynote and endcap, and two tracks (‘new to natives’ and ‘knows the natives’).

Keynote: The Meeting Place: Exploring the work of the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center by Andrea DeLong-Amaya
“The environment is where we all meet; where we all have a mutual interest; it is the one thing that all of us share.” — Lady Bird Johnson, Environmental First Lady
The University of Texas at Austin Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center is the State Botanic Garden and Arboretum of Texas dedicated to inspiring the conservation of native plants. The Center’s gardens and arboretum display native plants from across Texas and serve as a model for creating beautiful, sustainable landscapes. The Center guides the development of urban and rural landscapes across the U.S. that incorporate native prairies, green roofs, rainwater harvesting and other sustainable features. It operates Native Plants of North America, the most comprehensive online native plant resource, and has set aside millions of seeds from Texas native plants for future generations and restoration activities.

In addition to educating children and adults about native plants and training citizen scientists to identify and report invasive species, the Center led the development of SITES®, a sustainable landscape rating system now used worldwide. Join Andrea DeLong-Amaya, director of horticulture at the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center for a virtual tour of how the Wildflower Center works to improve water quality, provide habitat for wildlife and enhance human health and happiness. Together we can make the world a better place with native plants
Breakout Session 1
§  New to Natives Track: Plant It and They Will Come: Habitat Gardening by Susan Tweit
§  In a world of climate change, droughts, heat waves, and imperiled populations of songbirds and pollinators, what can home gardeners do to make a positive difference? Plant habitat! Gardens that mimic the form and composition of nearby natural areas, and are based on native and regionally adapted species will attract and sustain songbirds and pollinators, and make a crucial difference in restoring nature in our everyday spaces. As Habitat Hero program founder Connie Holsinger likes to say, “Plant it, and they will come.” Join plant ecologist and writer Susan J. Tweit to explore how a habitat garden can fit into your landscaping, and learn what plants to use, plus design basics to draw on whatever your style or location.
§  Knows the Natives Track: Historic Uses of Colorado Native Plants by Jim Tolstrup
§  For Native Americans and early pioneers, Colorado’s native plants served as grocery store and pharmacy, and also supplied fibers and dyes. Understanding these historic relationships helps deepen our understanding of both plants and people. Join Jim Tolstrup to learn more about cultural uses of native plants, as well as how to cultivate these unique species in your yards and gardens.

Breakout Session 2
§  New to Natives Track: Integrating Native Plants to Your Existing Landscape by Ronda Koski
§  By now you are thinking that embellishment of an existing residential, commercial, or municipal landscape with Colorado native plants is the “right thing” to do. Perhaps you have your retrofitted landscape all planned in your mind and may even have drawn it out on paper. But how does one turn those ideas into reality? This session will provide you with suggestions to help you be more successful with the integration of Colorado native plants into an existing landscape.
§  Knows the Natives Track: Penstemons for Colorado Gardens by Mike Kintgen
§  Mike Kintgen is the Curator of Alpine Collections at the Denver Botanic Gardens where he oversees the Alpine Collection and eight gardens including the Rock Alpine Garden, Mount Goliath and South African Plaza. The drive to see alpines in their native environments has allowed him to observe alpines in Alaska, Hawaii, Argentina, Morocco, Spain, the Alps, and throughout the American West. Recently he completed a master’s in environmental science at Regis University exploring precipitation gradients and soil pH in Colorado’s alpine tundra. He is a coauthor of several books published by Denver Botanic Gardens.
§  With over 250 species the genus Penstemon is found in almost every environment in Colorado and Western North America. Most of the Colorado and the surrounding regions species can be grown in gardens and make excellent additions to Xeric, Native, and Rock gardens. We will cover some of the best species for Colorado gardens and some helpful hints to grow them in your gardens.

Breakout Session 3
§  New to Natives Track: Plant This, Not That: Colorado Native Plant Alternatives to Common Garden Plants by Deryn Davidson
§  Now that you know the benefits of using Colorado native plants in your landscape, how do you choose which ones to use? Selecting Colorado native plants can be challenging for gardeners because they are not familiar with their ornamental characteristics. Therefore, this session will list well-known non-native plants and then feature ideal Colorado native alternatives.
§  Knows the Natives Track: Native Grasses by Nick Daniel
§  Nick will give an overview of some well-known, and some not so well-known native grasses with horticultural importance. Using native grasses in your landscape is just as important as any other flowering plant in terms of water saving, wildlife value, and aesthetic. Cultural information and design considerations will be the focus of this presentation.

Breakout Session 4
§  New to Natives Track: Native Plants for Year-Round Interest by Irene Shonle
§  Native plants can provide interest all year round, even in winter. We will look at plants that shine in each season, and discuss many winning plant combinations as well.
§  Knows the Natives Track: Colorado Native Plants on Green Roofs? by Jennifer Bousselot
§  Colorado’s rich native flora provides a proverbial feast for green roof enthusiasts worldwide. The City of Denver has recently passed one of the most aggressive green roof initiatives in the world. You too can have a green roof – on your home or simply a birdhouse green roof. Explore the emerging topic of using native plants on green roofs with one of the worlds few green roof plant experts.

Closing Endnote: The Nature of Colorado’s Native Plant Industry: Unveiling the Mysteries Behind Supply, Demand and Selection by Pat Hayward
If the nursery industry was like manufacturing, we’d always have a good supply of the species we need; if plants were more like widgets. they’d be consistent in form and size. If our natural world was a controlled biodome, everything would grow beautifully and without losses or failures. In Colorado, however, our horticultural world is dynamic and unpredictable, making our gardening lives more “interesting,” and causing increasing challenges to our native plant industry.

In this session you’ll learn about native plant production, gain insights into demand dynamics and discover how new native plant selections come to market. What new techniques are growers using? How is consumer demand for natives changing? And why-oh-why can’t we ever get enough of the new varieties?

Hope to see you there!

Friday, November 16, 2018

Simple Composting

by Yvette Henson
I love compost!  There is nothing that I can think of that is more beneficial for soil.  And, we all know that the secret to great gardens is the soil.  While it is more difficult to compost in the mountains, it can be done.  The most common frustrations are that it breaks down more slowly in our cooler summers and it often attracts critters like bears and skunks!  However, once you have successfully made your own compost, added it to your soil and seen your plants response you will know it is worth the extra management to speed up the composting process.  If you still find it too problematic outdoors, you can build a worm-bin or some other indoor composting system. Or once you are a “true believer”, like me, you will do both!

A 3-bin composting system
Compost has many benefits.  It increases water-holding capacity of sandy soils and improves drainage of heavy (clay) soils.  It also decreases the amount of shrink-swell of clay soils.  It improves soil aeration, infiltration, tilth and structure and reduces soil compaction and water runoff.  It increases soil biota and decreases disease and insect problems.  It improves soil fertility and moderates pH.  Composting reduces the amount of waste going into our landfills.

There are also a few potential environmental risks from the composting process and overusing compost.  Unfinished or immature compost may have phytotoxins that can kill plants.  Applying too much over time can build up toxicity of certain nutrients (especially Phosphorous) in the soil.  Leachates from compost can contaminate surface water or ground water if located too close to water sources.  Odor from improper composting is the most common complaint.

Steps for simple composting:
·         Locate to get around 6 hours of sunlight a day, but some shade will keep it moist. 
·         Use an ‘ideal’ ratio of 25-30:1 carbon to nitrogen when building your pile. 
o   Carbon is dry, brown or yellow, bulky material like autumn leaves, bark, paper, wood and sawdust.  Carbon gives energy to microorganisms but too much will slow decomposition.  Nitrogen is green, moist material like grass clippings, food wastes (including coffee and tea grounds) and fresh animal manures. 
o   Nitrogen increases microorganism populations. Nitrogen materials have high moisture and low oxygen, so too much leads to low temperatures, odor and leaching. 

Nitrogen sources to layer with dried leaves,
a carbon source, to build compost pile
·         Layer your carbon and nitrogen in equal, shallow layers.  Top with a thin layer of soil or well-composted manure if desired.  Variety is the key!
·         Build your pile to at least 4-6’ high and wider.
·         Keep moist-- like a damp sponge. If it isn’t moist enough it will break down slowly.  If it is too moist it will not have enough oxygen.
·         Keep well-drained and aerated.   If your pile doesn’t get enough oxygen it will have an odor and it will break down more slowly. 
·         The best temperature range for microorganisms to do the breakdown process is 90° - 140° F.  Too cool slows decomposition; too hot kills beneficial microorganisms (but also weed seeds).
·         Turning the pile speeds up decomposition (see the following graph).
Graph from Cornell Composting Fact Sheet #5
·         You will know your compost is finished when it maintains 70 degrees and larger pieces of what you have added have ‘disappeared’.  Chunky carbon like small branches, seeds and egg shells can be screened out.  
·        Apply your compost an inch or 2 deep and work into the top 8-12” of your garden soil before planting or apply a thin layer as mulch on your perennial plantings

What about those pesky critters?
Personally, I’ve never had much problem with critters in my piles because I don’t add fruit, meat, grease or cooked food.  I save fruit for the worm bin.  I always cover my nitrogen materials, after adding them with a layer of carbon (bagged leaves or spent straw are what I usually have on hand).  Other things that might discourage critters:  use ‘bear proof’ containers for composting, electrify your compost perimeter, use repellents (hot pepper spray, etc.) and again, be sure to avoid adding meat, fish, oil, grease or dairy products and maybe egg shells.  Not adding fruit or burying it deeply in the pile is something to try too.

Friday, November 9, 2018

Mountain Vegetable Gardening

By Ginger Baer
Every well-seasoned gardener knows that each new year is different from the last.  From variations in temperatures, to variations in moisture, wind, pests, to the variety of plants one can potentially grow.  For the non-seasoned gardener, take heart!  Every year has a new challenge, but isn’t it the challenge that keeps many of us going?

Troughs used in Community Garden
I grow at 9000’ in the Gilpin County Community Garden. As if the altitude alone is not enough of a challenge, in the growing year 2017 we had the added challenge of combating a large influx of Golden Mantled Ground Squirrels and a multitude of pocket gophers. In an effort to improve our plots in the community garden, the CSU Extension office in Gilpin County purchased some metal water troughs. These created a barrier the critters could not dig into, nor climb. And the troughs, measuring 10’ x 3’ x 2’, gave our seniors raised beds in which to garden.  Something that my knees appreciated!

As added protection for the raised bed, I also used a floating row cover.  This protected the plants from possible frost, winds and beating sun.  I made sure to keep a portion of the cover open to allow pollinators to get in. They obviously did their job as I did have a mostly successful harvest.

Since our growing season is so short (maybe 90 days if we are lucky) the common practice is to grow cold weather vegetables. Peas, greens, carrots, broccoli, radishes, turnips and such do very well.  Often a second planting of greens can produce a late season crop. It is recommended to select varieties that have the shortest number of days to maturity.

Not to be deterred by conventional wisdom, I just had to try to grow some warmer season crops.  I opted to grow summer squash, cucumbers, onions and green beans. Here is a list of what I grew (or attempted to grow) and my notes about each.

Radish French Breakfast- I love this one! It is a long cylindrical shaped radish with great spicy flavor. I will do this one again next year. I also was able to successfully plant and harvest several crops of this as it is quick to mature.

Carrot Little Finger- This is a crisp and sweet carrot. I was able to grow many up to 6' long. I think this can be attributed to growing in the trough garden.

Arugula Rocket Salad, Roquette- I love this one! Very quick to germinate and a wonderful spicy flavor. I got a successive harvest late in the season. I will do this one again.

Lettuce Salad Bowl Red, heirloom- Bright red, deeply lobed leaves with a smooth silky texture. This grew well all season without bolting. I will do this one again.

Spinach Palco Hybrid- This is a favorite variety of mine. I have had success with this one for a few years. The leaves can grow quite large, but stay tender and the ribs are even edible with a nice crunch. Very slow to bolt. I will do this one again.

Peas Sugar Ann, Snap- This is a "bush" pea that grew to about 3 ' tall. It really did not require support as I grew the plants close together so that they would support one another. My only error was growing it too close to other vegetable because the peas flopped over on top of the other things. I will grow it again, but will be more mindful of what is growing nearby. A prolific producer.

Summer Squash Grey Griller- Wow! This is a really great squash. It will give you zucchini like fruit within about 50-60 days. Large variegated leaves give the plant some interest as well. I will do this one again but do not need to have 4 plants, 2 will be enough. They took up about 25% of my trough and over produced for me. You know, close your car windows or you will get some squash from me!

Cucumber Lemon- This was what I would call a short season variety (70 days) but it did not do well for me. I only got 2 very small cucumbers from this. It could, in part, be from the squash overwhelming it, but also not suited to altitude in my experience. I also grew 1 plant in a pot on my deck and did not get but 1 cucumber to set. Some vegetables need warmer night time temperatures than what we have, and I believe that may be the case with this one.

Green Beans Denver: French/Filet- This is a lovely, slim bean that matures in about 66 days. I don't think I will do this one again though as it was slow to germinate and about the time we started getting frost only about 30% of the blossoms produced beans. They are tender and tasty, just not worth the space in my opinion.

Onion Mix: Red, White, Yellow- These were purchased randomly through the internet. I did not know if they were short day, long day or day neutral. I took a chance and planted approximately 60 sets. I feel this was a success because I was able to harvest some through the season to use as green onions for salads and then I did have a nice harvest at the end of the season of moderately sized and very flavorful onions.

In addition to growing my vegetables in the trough in the community garden I decided to give the pollinators somethings to thrive on.  In the ground next to the trough I planted Sunflowers: Florist’s Sunny Bouquet and some Cosmos. Both flowers did well at altitude and were loaded with pollinators once they started to bloom.

In another couple of months, the seed catalogs will be starting to arrive. I need to see about trying some new things, along with the tried and true.  I only hope that I have enough space to grow in, or else I may need to get a second trough!
Thank you, CSU Extension Gilpin County, for getting those troughs. They were a definite success!

Thursday, November 1, 2018

What Are Rutabagas?

Creamy mashed Rutabaga like my family makes
by Ed Powers
‘What are rutabagas?’ was the question I asked myself when introduced to this vegetable by my wife and in-laws.  They had a tradition of having rutabagas for Thanksgiving and Christmas meals, a tradition brought over from England and Canada.  I must admit, I found rutabagas to be very good and we now have them every Holiday Season. It’s like having mashed potatoes, but they are rutabagas.  In Michigan, where we lived, rutabagas were easy to find (grown in Canada and shipped in).  Here in Colorado, not so much.  So, I had to do some research to see if I might be able to grow them at my altitude (7,600’).  When doing the research, I found some interesting information.

Rutabaga’s botanical name is Brassica napobrassica, and rutabagas are only called ‘rutabaga’ in the U.S. Throughout the rest of the world, they're known as swedes. This ordinary root vegetable is thought to have originated in Bohemia in the 17th century as a hybrid between a turnip and wild cabbage. It is a large, round, yellow-fleshed root that is eaten as a vegetable.  The earliest reference in print was from 1620 when it was noted that this vegetable could be found growing wild in Sweden.  Rutabagas first appeared in North America about 1817 where they were reportedly being grown in Illinois.

Turnips (Brassica rapa) are usually white or white/purple while rutabagas are usually yellowish and brown. Rutabagas are slightly sweeter tasting than turnips, and the most obvious visible difference between them is their size. Turnips for human consumption are harvested when small and tender. They tend to get woody when bigger. Turnips are also grown as a nutritious livestock feed. Rutabagas stay tender at larger sizes. Even though you might find some small ones, they are usually harvested at a larger size. So, the big yellowish ones are rutabagas, and the smaller white and purple ones are turnips.
Physical Difference between Turnip and Rutabaga
Difference between Turnips and Rutabagas

Rutabagas are also called Swede or Swedish turnips, yellow turnips, and "neeps." Many simply call them turnips. Best of all, turnips and rutabagas are easy to grow, and store, and are relatively pest-free.  Much of the crop's success depends on timing.

Rutabagas grown in raised gardens 
So, after finding this background information, I went on to learn how to grow them. What I needed to do is to sow a spring crop in early March 1/4 inch deep. Seeds may be broadcast and later thinned to three or four inches apart, or they can be planted in rows 18 or more inches apart. Give rutabaga plants six inches in which to grow.  I followed this planting routine for the first time in Colorado last spring.  Even though it was very dry this year I watered every other day.  The leaves grew huge and seem to cover the garden area.  I did not believe it was growing anything.  However, I harvested the second week in October and I had rutabagas anywhere from 3 to 6 inches.  So, we can grow them at our altitude!  We will be planting them again next year.

Michigan State University
Pictures Courtesy of:
Tablescence .com
Live and Learn-Toss and Turn